Film en video
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
also called a movie or motion
picture, is a series of still images which, when shown on a
screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to phi
phenomenon. A film is created byphotographing actual
scenes with a motion
picture camera; by photographing drawings or miniature models
using traditional animation techniques;
by means of CGI and computer
animation; or by a combination of some or all of these
techniques and other visual
effects. Contemporary definition of cinema is the art of
simulating experiences, that communicate ideas, stories,
perceptions, feelings, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded
or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations.
of filmmaking is
both an art and
Films were originally recorded onto plastic film which was shown
through a movie
projector onto a
large screen; more modern techniques may use wholly digital filming
and storage, such as the Red
One camera which
records onto hard-disk or flash cards.
usually include an optical
soundtrack, which is a graphic recording of
the spoken words, music and other sounds that
are to accompany the images. It runs along a portion of the film
exclusively reserved for it and is not projected.
Films are cultural
artifacts created by
They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is
considered to be an important art form,
a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens.
The visual basis of film gives it a universal power of
communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions
by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the
dialog into the language of the viewer. Some have criticized the
film industry's glorification of violence.
individual images that make up a film are called frames.
During projection, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness
as each frame in turn is moved into position to be projected, but
the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect
of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction
of a second after the source has been removed. The perception of
motion is due to a psychological effect called beta
"film" originates from the fact that photographic
film (also called film
stock) has historically been the medium for
recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for
an individual motion picture, including picture, picture
picture,photoplay and flick.
The most common term in the United States is movie,
while in Europe film is
preferred. Terms for the field in general include the
big screen, the
silver screen, the
movies and cinema;
the latter is commonly used in scholarly texts and critical essays,
especially by European writers. In early years, the word sheet was
sometimes used instead of screen.
film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had
elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production,direction, actors, audiences, storyboards,
Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism apply, such
en scene (roughly,
the entire visual picture at any one time). Owing to the lack of any
technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be
recorded for replaying as with film.
mid-19th century, inventions such as thephenakistoscope and zoetrope demonstrated
that a carefully designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of
the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show
the objects actually moving if they were displayed one after the
other at a sufficiently rapid rate. These devices relied on the
of vision to make the
display appear continuous even though the observer's view was
actually blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its
predecessor had just been glimpsed. Each sequence was limited to a
small number of drawings, usually twelve, so it could only show
endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last
major device of this type, thepraxinoscope,
had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band
containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements
of a magic
lantern to project
them onto a screen.
The use of
sequences of photographs in
such devices was initially limited to a few experiments with
subjects photographed in a series of poses, because the available emulsions were
not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed
to photograph subjects that were actually moving. The sensitivity
was gradually improved and in the late 1870s Eadweard
Muybridge created the
first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of
cameras was used, each in turn capturing one image on a glass photographic
plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was
limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge
used his system to analyze the movements of a wide variety of animal
and human subjects. Hand-painted images based on the photographs
were projected as moving images by means of his zoopraxiscope.
By the end
of the 1880s, the introduction of lengths of celluloid photographic
film and the
invention of motion
picture cameras, which could photograph an indefinitely long
rapid sequence of images using only one lens, allowed several
minutes of action to be captured and stored on a single compact reel of
film. Some early films were made to be viewed by one person at a
time through a "peep show" device such as the Kinetoscope.
Others were intended for a projector,
mechanically similar to the camera and sometimes actually the same
machine, which was used to shine an intense light through the
processed and printed film and into a projection lens so that these
"moving pictures" could be shown tremendously enlarged on a screen
for viewing by an entire audience. The first public exhibition of
projected motion pictures in America was at Koster
and Bial's Music Hall in New
York City on the 23rd
of April 1896.
films were simply one static shot that
showed an event or action with no editingor
other cinematic techniques. Around the turn of the 20th century,
films started stringing several scenes together
to tell a story. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots
photographed from different distances and angles. Other techniques
such as camera movement were developed as effective ways to tell a
story with film. Until sound
commercially practical in the late 1920s, motion pictures were a
art, but these innovative silent
films had gained a
hold on the public imagination. Rather than leave audiences with
only the noise of the projector as an accompaniment, theater owners
hired apianist or organist or,
in large urban theaters, a full orchestra to
play music that fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the
early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music to
be used for this purpose, and complete film
scores were composed
for major productions.
The rise of
European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World
War I, while the film industry in the United States flourished
with the rise of Hollywood,
typified most prominently by the innovative work of D.
W. Griffith in The
Birth of a Nation (1915)
and Intolerance (1916).
However, in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei
W. Murnau andFritz
Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric wartime progress of
film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles
Keaton and others,
quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further
advance the medium.
1920s, the development of electronic sound
made it practical to incorporate a soundtrack of
speech, music and sound
with the action on the screen.[citation
films were initially
distinguished from the usual silent "moving pictures" or "movies" by
calling them "talking pictures" or "talkies."[citation
revolution they wrought was swift. By 1930, silent film was
practically extinct in the US and already being referred to as "the
major technological development was the introduction of "natural
color," which meant color that was photographically recorded
from nature rather than added to black-and-white prints by
hand-coloring, stencil-coloring or other arbitrary procedures,
although the earliest processes typically yielded colors which were
far from "natural" in appearance.[citation
the advent of sound films quickly made silent films and theater
musicians obsolete, color replaced black-and-white much more
pivotal innovation was the introduction of the three-strip version
of the Technicolor process,
first used for animated cartoons in 1932, then also for live-action short
films and isolated
sequences in a few feature
films, then for an entire feature film, Becky
Sharp, in 1935. The expense of the process was daunting, but
favorable public response in the form of increased box
usually justified the added cost. The number of films made in color
slowly increased year after year.
In the early
1950s, the proliferation of black-and-white television started
seriously depressing North American theater attendance.[citation
an attempt to lure audiences back into theaters, bigger screens were
installed, widescreen processes,polarized
3D projection and stereophonic
introduced, and more films were made in color, which soon became the
rule rather than the exception. Some important mainstream Hollywood
films were still being made in black-and-white as late as the
mid-1960s, but they marked the end of an era. Color television
receivers had been available in the US since the mid-1950s, but at
first they were very expensive and few broadcasts were in color.
During the 1960s, prices gradually came down, color broadcasts
became common, and sales boomed. The overwhelming public verdict in
favor of color was clear. After the final flurry of black-and-white
films had been released in mid-decade, all Hollywood studio
productions were filmed in color, with rare exceptions reluctantly
made only at the insistence of "star" directors such as Peter
Bogdanovich and Martin
following the decline of the studio
system in the 1960s
saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave
movements (including the French
New Wave, Indian
New Wave, Japanese
New Wave and New
Hollywood) and the rise of film-school-educated independent
filmmakers contributed to the changes the medium experienced in the
latter half of the 20th century.[citation
technology has been the driving force for change throughout the
1990s and into the 2000s. Digital 3D projection largely replaced
earlier problem-prone 3D film systems and has become popular in the
theory" seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply
to the study of film as art.
The concept of film as an art-form began with Ricciotto
Canudo's The Birth
of the Sixth Art. Formalist
film theory, led by Rudolf
Balázs, and Siegfried
Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus
could be considered a valid fine art.André
Bazin reacted against
this theory by arguing that film's artistic essence lay in its
ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences
from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent
analysis spurred by Jacques
Lacan's psychoanalysis andFerdinand
de Saussure's semiotics among
other things has given rise to psychoanalytical
film theory, structuralist
film theory, feminist
film theory and
others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical
influenced by Wittgenstein,
try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and
produce analysis of a film's vocabulary and its link to a form
considered to have its own language. James
Monaco wrote a
classic text on film theory titled "How to Read a
Film". Director Ingmar
Tarkovsky for me is
the greatest director,
the one who invented a new
language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a
reflection, life as a dream." Examples of the language are a
sequence of back and forth images of one actor's left profile
speaking, followed by another actor's right profile speaking, then a
repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience
to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the
forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then
changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the
first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their
the technique by which separate pieces of film are selected, edited,
and then pieced together to make a new section of film. A scene
could show a man going into battle, with flashbacks to his youth and
to his home-life and with added special effects, placed into the
film after filming is complete. As these were all filmed separately,
and perhaps with different actors, the final version is called a
developed a theory of montage, beginning with Eisenstein and the
complex superimposition of images in his film Battleship
of musical and visual counterpoint,
and scene development through mise
en scene, editing and
effects, has led to more complex techniques comparable to those used
in Opera and ballet.
Main article: Film
criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these
works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film
scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and
working for newspapers, magazines,
media mainly review
new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have
only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have
an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres.
Mass marketed action, horror,
films tend not to be
greatly affected by a critic's overall judgment of a film. The plot
summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any
film review can still have an important impact on whether people
decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas,
the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will
often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss.
of a reviewer on a given film's box
office performance is
a matter of debate. Some claim that movie
marketing is now so
intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact
against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily
promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the
unexpected success of critically praised independent movies
indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable
influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to
spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been
several films in which film companies have so little confidence that
they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid
widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as
reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film
may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result.
It is argued
that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers,
and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to
films. This line of work is more often known as film
theory or film
studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how
film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on
people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or
appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly
journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be
affiliated with colleges or universities.
Main article: Film
and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as
soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their
new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly
set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately
to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would
normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly
enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe
to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen
additional product commercially. The Oberammergau
Passion Play of 1898[citation
the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures
soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that
overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and
companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while
motion picture actors became major celebrities and
commanded huge fees for their performances. By 1917 Charlie
Chaplin had a
contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars.
From 1931 to
1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television
programming until the
introduction of videotape
United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood,
California. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the
world, such as Mumbai-centeredBollywood,
film industry's Hindi cinema
which produces the largest number of films in the world. Whether
the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic
film industry should
qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation
the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to
concentrate under the auspices of movie
studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment
have allowed independent film productions to flourish.
Profit is a
key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of
filmmaking; many films have large cost
overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner's Waterworld.
Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social
significance. The Academy
Awards (also known as
"the Oscars") are the most prominent film awards in the United
States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly
based on their artistic merits.
also a large industry for educational and instructional films made
in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts.
academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop
independently of filmmaking, as in film
theory and analysis.
Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or
dependent on the existence of film, such as film
history, divisions of film
authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of
a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further
create derivative fields, such as a movie
review section in a
newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from
film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of
pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product
placement in advertising.
terminology used for describing motion pictures varies considerably
and American English. In British usage, the name of the medium
is "film". The word "movie" is understood, but seldom used. Additionally,
"the pictures" (plural) is used semi-frequently in place of what an
American English speaker would call "the movies", but it is becoming
in the US "movie" is the predominant form. Although the words "film"
and "movie" are sometimes used interchangeably, "film" is more often
used when considering artistic, theoretical,
or technical aspects,
as studies in a university class and "movies" more often refers to entertainment or commercial aspects,
as where to go for fun on a date. For example, a book titled "How to
Read a Film" would be about the aesthetics or theory of film, while
"Lets Go to the Movies" would be about the history of entertaining
terminology is used to distinguish various forms and media of film
industry. "Motion pictures" or "Moving pictures" are films and
movies, and "the motion picture" is frequently used in film
productions specifically intended for cinematic release, such as for
The Motion Picture. A "DVD"
is a digital format which may be used to reproduce an analog film,
was for many decades a solely analog medium onto which moving images
could be recorded and electronically (rather than optically)
reproduced. Strictly speaking, "Film" refers to the media onto which
a visual image is shot, and to this end it may seem improper for
work in other "moving image" media to be referred to as a "film" and
the action of shooting as "filming", though these terms are still in
general use. "Silent
films" need not be silent, but are films and movies without an
audible dialogue, though they may have a musical soundtrack. "Talkies"
refers to early movies or films having audible dialogue or
analog sound, not just a musical accompaniment. "Cinema"
either broadly encompasses both films and movies, or is roughly
synonymous with "Film", both capitalized when referring to a
category of art. The "silver
screen" refers to classic black-and-white films before color,
not to contemporary films without color. It is also used as a metonym for
the entire film industry.
and Sound", as in the film journal of the same name, means
"film". The following icons mean film: a "candle and bell" as in the
films of Tarkovsky;
a segment of film
stock; a reel of film; a two faced Janus image;
a movie camera in profile.
refers to a larger width to height in the frame,
compared to an earlier historic aspect
"feature length film", or "feature
film", is of a conventional full length, usually 60 minutes or
more, and can commercially stand by itself without other films in a
ticketed screening. A
is a film that is not as long as a feature length film, usually
screened with other shorts, or preceding a feature length film. An "independent"
is a film made outside of the conventional film industry.
In the US
usage, one talks of a "screening"
of a movie or video on a screen at
a public or private "theater". In British English, a "film showing"
happens at a cinema (never
which is a different medium and place altogether). When
referring to the activity, one might propose "going to the cinema",
or sometimes "to the pictures", in British English, whereas in the
US the expression is "going to the movies". The cinema will usually
but not always be showing an actual film, as a video or DVD might
also be shown when of sufficient projection quality, and with the
advent of digital
film production production and distribution, physical film might
be absent entirely. A "double
feature" is a screening of two independent, stand-alone, feature
films. A "viewing" is a watching of a film. "Sales"
refers to tickets sold at a theater, or more currently, rights sold
for individual showings. A "release"
is the distribution and often simultaneous screening of a film. A "preview"
is a screening in advance of the main release.
may be used either as a pejorative adjective, shorthand for
asserting an overly commercial rather than artistic intent or
outcome, as in "too Hollywood", or as a descriptive adjective to
refer to a film originating with people who ordinarily work near Los
for Genres of
film are sometimes used interchangeably for "film" in a specific
context, such as a "porn"
for a film with explicit sexual content, or "cheese"
for films that are light, entertaining and not highbrow.
Any film may
also have a "sequel",
which portrays events following those in the film. Bride
of Frankenstein is
an early example. When there are a number of films with the same
characters, we have a "series", such as the James
Bond series. A film
which portrays events that occur earlier than those in another film,
but is released after that film, is sometimes called a "prequel",
an example being Butch
and Sundance: The Early Days.
a list of the people involved in making the film. Before the 1970s,
credits were usually at the beginning of a film. Since then, the
credits roll at the end of most films.
scene is a scene
shown after the end of the credits. Ferris
Bueller's Day Off has
a post-credit scene in which Ferris tells the audience that the
movie is over and they should go home.
Main article: Test
performance refers to a showing of a movie to a select audience,
usually for the purposes of corporate promotions, before the public
film premiere itself. Previews are sometimes used to judge audience
reaction, which if unexpectedly negative, may result in recutting or
even refilming certain sections (Audience
Main article: Film
previews are film advertisements for films that will be exhibited in
the future at a cinema, on whose screen they are shown. The term
"trailer" comes from their having originally been shown at the end
of a film programme. That practice did not last long, because
patrons tended to leave the theater after the films ended, but the
name has stuck. Trailers are now shown before the film (or the A
movie in a double feature program) begins.
trailers have now become popular on DVDs and Blu-ray
Discs, as well as on the Internet and mobile devices. Of some
ten billion videos watched online annually, film trailers rank
third, after news and user-created video.
Film may be
combined with performance
art and still be
considered or referred to as a "film", for instance, when there is a
live musical accompaniment to a silent film. Another example is
audience participation films, as at a midnight
movies screening of The
Rocky Horror Picture Show, where the audience dresses up in
costume from the film and loudly does a karaoke-like
reenactment along with the film. Performance art where film is
incorporated as a component is usually not called film, but a film,
which could stand-alone but is accompanied by a performance may
still be referred to as a film.
The act of
making a film can, in and of itself, be considered a work of art, on
a different level from the film itself, as in the films of Werner
the playing of a film can be considered to fall within the realm of
art, as in the subtleties within the films ofTarkovsky.
A "road movie" can refer to a film put together from footage from a
long road trip or vacation.
Film is used
for education and propaganda. When the purpose is primarily
educational, a film is called an "educational
film". Examples are recordings of lectures and experiments, or
more marginally, a film based on a classic novel.
Film may be propaganda,
in whole or in part, such as the films made by Leni
Riefenstahl in Nazi
Germany, US war film trailers during World War II, or artistic films
made under Stalin by Eisenstein.
They may also be works of political protest, as in the films of Wajda,
or more subtly, the films of Andrei
film may be considered educational by some, and propaganda by
others, such as the film by conservative non-profit Citizens
voters disaffected with President Barack Obama.
At its core,
the means to produce a film depend on the content the filmmaker
wishes to show, and the apparatus for displaying it: thezoetrope merely
requires a series of images on a strip of paper. Film production can
therefore take as little as one person with a camera (or even
without a camera, as in Stan
Brakhage's 1963 film Mothlight),
or thousands of actors, extras and crewmembers for a live-action,
necessary steps for almost any film can be boiled down to
conception, planning, execution, revision, and distribution. The
more involved the production, the more significant each of the steps
becomes. In a typical production
cycle of a
Hollywood-style film, these main stages are defined as:
production cycle usually takes three years. The first year is taken
up with development.
The second year comprises preproductionand production.
The third year, post-production and distribution.
the production, the more resources it takes, and the more important financing becomes;
most feature films are not only artistic works, but for-profit
A film crew
is a group of people hired by a film company, employed during the
"production" or "photography" phase, for the purpose of producing a
film or motion picture. Crew are
distinguished from cast,
the actors who
appear in front of the camera or
provide voices for characters in the film. The crew interacts
with but is also distinct from the production
staff, consisting of
producers, managers, company representatives, their assistants, and
those whose primary responsibility falls in pre-production or
post-production phases, such as writers and editors. Communication
between production and crew generally
passes through the director and his/her staff of assistants.
Medium-to-large crews are generally divided into departments with
well defined hierarchies and standards for interaction and
cooperation between the departments. Other than acting, the crew
handles everything in the photography phase: props and costumes,
shooting, sound, electrics (i.e., lights), sets, and production
special effects. Caterers (known in the film industry as "craft
services") are usually not considered part of the crew.
Film stock consists
of transparent celluloid, acetate,
or polyester base coated
with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. Cellulose
nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion
pictures, but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by
safer materials. Stock widths and the film
format for images on
the reel have had a rich history, though most large commercial films
are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints.
moving picture film was shot and projected at various speeds using
hand-cranked cameras and projectors;
though 1000 frames per minute (16⅔ frame/s) is generally cited as a
standard silent speed, research indicates most films were shot
between 16 frame/s and 23 frame/s and projected from 18 frame/s on
up (often reels included instructions on how fast each scene should
be shown). When sound
film was introduced
in the late 1920s, a constant speed was required for the sound head.
24 frames per second was chosen because it was the slowest (and thus
cheapest) speed which allowed for sufficient sound quality.
Improvements since the late 19th century include the mechanization
of cameras – allowing them to record at a consistent speed, quiet
camera design – allowing sound recorded on-set to be usable without
requiring large "blimps" to encase the camera, the invention of more
sophisticated filmstocks and lenses,
allowing directors to
film in increasingly dim conditions, and the development of
synchronized sound, allowing sound to be recorded at exactly the
same speed as its corresponding action. The soundtrack can be
recorded separately from shooting the film, but for live-action
pictures many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded
As a medium,
film is not limited to motion pictures, since the technology
developed as the basis for photography.
It can be used to present a progressive sequence of still images in
the form of a slideshow. Film has also been incorporated into multimediapresentations,
and often has importance as primary historical documentation.
However, historic films have problems in terms of preservation and
storage, and the motion picture industry is exploring many
alternatives. Most movies on cellulose nitrate base have been copied
onto modern safety films. Some studios save color films through the
use of separation
masters: three B&W negatives each exposed through red, green, or
blue filters (essentially a reverse of the Technicolor process).
Digital methods have also been used to restore films, although their
continued obsolescence cycle makes them (as of 2006) a poor choice
for long-term preservation. Film
decaying film stock is a matter of concern to both film historians
and archivists, and to companies interested in preserving their
existing products in order to make them available to future
generations (and thereby increase revenue). Preservation is
generally a higher concern for nitrate and single-strip color films,
due to their high decay rates; black-and-white films on safety bases
and color films preserved on Technicolor imbibition prints tend to
keep up much better, assuming proper handling and storage.
in recent decades have been recorded using analog video technology
similar to that used in television
video cameras and digital
gaining ground as well. These approaches are preferred by some
moviemakers, especially because footage shot with digital
cinema can be
evaluated and edited with non-linear
editing systems (NLE)
without waiting for the film stock to be processed. Yet the
migration is gradual, and as of 2005 most major motion pictures are
still shot on film.
filmmaking often takes place outside of Hollywood, or other major studio
systems. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially
produced without financing or distribution from a major
movie studio. Creative, business, and technological reasons have
all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late
20th and early 21st century.
business side, the costs of big-budget studio films also leads to
conservative choices in cast and crew. There is a trend in Hollywood
towards co-financing (over two-thirds of the films put out byWarner
Bros. in 2000 were
joint ventures, up from 10% in 1987). A
hopeful director is almost never given the opportunity to get a job
on a big-budget studio film unless he or she has significant
industry experience in film or television. Also, the studios rarely
produce films with unknown actors, particularly in lead roles.
advent of digital alternatives,
the cost of professional film equipment and stock was also a hurdle
to being able to produce, direct, or star in a traditional studio
advent of consumer camcorders in
1985, and more importantly, the arrival of high-resolutiondigital
video in the early
1990s, have lowered the technology barrier to movie production
significantly. Both production and post-production costs have been
significantly lowered; today, the hardware and software for
post-production can be installed in a commodity-based personal
computer. Technologies such as DVDs, FireWire connections
and a wide variety of professional and consumer-grade video
editing software make
movie-making relatively inexpensive.
introduction of DV technology,
the means of production have become more democratized. Filmmakers
can conceivably shoot and edit a movie, create and edit the sound
and music, and mix the final cut on a home computer. However, while
the means of production may be democratized, financing,
distribution, and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside
the traditional system. Most independent filmmakers rely on film
festivals to get
their films noticed and sold for distribution. The arrival of
internet-based video outlets such as YouTube and Veoh has
further changed the film making landscape in ways that are still to
content film is much like an independent film, but it is produced
through open collaborations; its source material is available under
a license which
is permissive enough to allow other parties to create fan
fiction or derivative
works, than a traditional copyright. Like independent filmmaking,
open source filmmaking takes place outside of Hollywood, or other
A fan film
is a film or video inspired by a film, television
book or a similar
source, created by fans rather
than by the source's copyright holders or creators. Fan filmmakers
have traditionally been amateurs,
but some of the more notable films have actually been produced by
professional filmmakers as film school class projects or as
demonstration reels. Fan films vary tremendously in length, from
short faux-teaser trailers for non-existent motion pictures to rarer
full-length motion pictures.
When it is
initially produced, a feature film is often shown to audiences in a movie
theater or cinema.
The identity of the first theater designed specifically for cinema
is a matter of debate; candidates include Tally's Electric Theatre,
established 1902 in Los Angeles,and
Pittsburgh's Nickelodeon, established 1905. Thousands
of such theaters were built or converted from existing facilities
within a few years. In
States, these theaters came to be known as nickelodeons,
because admission typically cost a nickel (five cents).
one film is the featured presentation (or feature
film). Before the 1970s, there were "double features";
typically, a high quality "A picture" rented by an independent
theater for a lump sum, and a "B picture" of lower quality rented
for a percentage of the gross receipts. Today, the bulk of the
material shown before the feature film consists of previews for
upcoming movies and paid advertisements (also known as trailers or
Historically, all mass marketed feature films were made to be shown
in movie theaters. The development of television has
allowed films to be broadcast to larger audiences, usually after the
film is no longer being shown in theaters.[citation
1967, videocassettes of
movies became available to consumers to watch in their own homes. Recording
technology has since enabled consumers to rent or buy copies of
films on VHS or DVD (and
the older formats of laserdisc, VCD and SelectaVision –
see also videodisc),
and Internetdownloads may
be available and have started to become revenue sources for the film
companies. Some films are now made specifically for these other
venues, being released as a television
movie or direct-to-video movies.
The production values on these films are often considered to be of
inferior quality compared to theatrical releases in similar genres,
and indeed, some films that are rejected by their own movie
completion are distributed through these markets.
theater pays an average of about 50-55% of its ticket sales to the
movie studio, as film rental fees. The
actual percentage starts with a number higher than that, and
decreases as the duration of a film's showing continues, as an
incentive to theaters to keep movies in the theater longer. However,
today's barrage of highly marketed movies ensures that most movies
are shown in first-run theaters for less than 8 weeks. There are a
few movies every year that defy this rule, often limited-release
movies that start in only a few theaters and actually grow their
theater count through good word-of-mouth and reviews. According to a
2000 study by ABN
AMRO, about 26% of Hollywood movie studios' worldwide income
came from box office ticket sales; 46% came from VHS and DVD sales
to consumers; and 28% came from television (broadcast, cable, and
This section requires expansion with:
optical disc distribution. (December
the technique in which each frame of a film is produced
individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by
photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes
to a model unit (see claymation and stop
motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation
camera. When the frames are strung together and the resulting
film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is
an illusion of continuous movement (due to the phi
phenomenon). Generating such a film is very labor intensive and
tedious, though the development of computer
animation has greatly
sped up the process.
animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to
produce, the majority of animation for TV and
movies comes from professional animation studios. However, the field
animation has existed
at least since the 1950s, with animation being produced by
independent studios (and sometimes by a single person). Several
independent animation producers have gone on to enter the
professional animation industry.
Limited animation is
a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by
using "short cuts" in the animation process. This method was
pioneered by UPA and
popularized by Hanna-Barbera in
States, and by Osamu
Tezuka in Japan,
and adapted by other studios as cartoons moved from movie
theaters to television.
most animation studios are now using digital technologies in their
productions, there is a specific style of animation that depends on
film. Cameraless animation, made famous by moviemakers like Norman
Lye and Stan
, is painted and drawn directly onto pieces of film, and
then run through a projector.
picture films have been around for more than a century, film is
still a relative newcomer in the pantheonof fine
arts. In the 1950s, when television became widely available,
industry analysts predicted
the demise of local movie theaters.[citation
competition from television's increasing technological
sophistication over the 1960s and 1970s[citation
as the development of color television and large screens, motion
picture cinemas continued. In fact with the rise of television's
predominance, film began to become more respected as an artistic
medium by contrast due the low general opinion of the quality of
average television content.[citation
the 1980s, when the widespread availability of inexpensive
videocassette recorders enabled people to select films for home
viewing, industry analysts again wrongly predicted the death of the
In the 1990s
and 2000s, the development of DVD players,
home theater amplification systems with surround sound and
subwoofers, and large LCD or plasma screens enabled people to select
and view films at home with greatly improved audio and visual
new technologies provided audio and visual that in the past only
local cinemas had been able to provide: a large, clear widescreen
presentation of a film with a full-range, high-quality multi-speaker
sound system. Once again industry analysts predicted the demise of
the local cinema. Local cinemas will be changing in the 21st century
and moving towards digital screens, a new approach which will allow
for easier and quicker distribution of films (via satellite or hard
disks), a development which may give local theaters a reprieve from
their predicted demise.[citation
cinema now faces a new challenge from home video by the likes of a
which can provide full HD 1080p video
playback at near cinema quality.[citation
formats are gradually catching up with the resolutions and quality
that film offers; 1080p in Blu-ray offers a pixel resolution of
1920×1080, a leap from the DVD offering of 720×480 and the 330×480
offered by the first home video standard,VHS.[citation
HD, a future digital video format, will offer a resolution of
7680×4320. However, the nature and structure of film prevents an
apples-to-apples comparison with regard to resolution. The
resolving power of film, and its ability to capture an image which
can later be scanned to a digital format, will ensure that film
remains a viable medium for some time to come.[citation
needed]Currently the super-16 format is seeing
use as a capture medium, with digital scanning and post-production
providing good results.
rise of all-new technologies, the development of the home video
market and a surge of online copyright infringement, 2007 was a
record year in film that showed the highest ever box-office grosses.
film to suffer as a result of the effects listed above but it has
flourished, strengthening film studio expectations for the future.[citation
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Allmovie – Information on films: actors, directors,
biographies, reviews, cast and production credits, box office
sales, and other movie data.|
Film Site – Reviews of classic films|
Movies on the Open
Rottentomatoes.com – Movie reviews, previews, forums, photos,
cast info, and more.|
The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) – Information on current
and historical films and cast listings.|